Others Publications

The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India, and the Philippines.

Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée / Markus Loewe / Caroline Reeg
External Publications (2015)

World Development 66(2), 118-130.


In many low- and middle-income countries most micro and small enterprises (MSEs) struggle to upgrade into medium sized and large enterprises. An extensive literature offers manifold explanations for the phenomenon but no conclusive answer on what the most important factors for MSE upgrading are: entrepreneur or firm characteristics; personal or business networks; or the business environment. On the basis of extensive empirical research conducted in Egypt, India, and the Philippines this article argues that the entrepreneur and the entrepreneur’s coping strategies matter much more than what the recent literature on Doing Business indicators and the business environment would lead us to believe.

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