Gender and migration: trends, gaps and urgent action

Bauloz, Celine / Margaret Walton-Roberts / Rose Jaji / Taehoon Lee
External Publications (2024)

in: Marie McAuliffe / Linda Adhiambo Oucho (eds.), World Migration Report 2024, Geneva: International Organisation for Migration, 165-195

ISBN: 978-92-9268-598-0
Open access

Gender norms and biases affect many aspects of day-to-day life. However, they take on a specific importance for migrants, influencing their migration experience to the extent that migration has been described as a gendered phenomenon. Alongside a range of other overlapping factors such as age, race, ethnicity, nationality, disability, health and socioeconomic status, gender impacts the different opportunities migrants may have and the various obstacles and risks they may face in pursuing them. By setting out different roles and expectations for migrants of specific genders, the social norms of countries of origin, transit and destination may influence, for instance, who can stay and migrate in a household, the motivations and options for migration, the preferred destination countries, the type and means of migration, the goal and objective of migration, the sector of employment or the disciplines studied, the status afforded by legislations of countries, including in terms of rights and benefits, and the list goes on. These gender dimensions of migration in turn impact societies in countries of origin, transit and destination. Similarly, in displacement contexts, gender considerations underpin individuals’ trajectories, experiences and protection, and even their very decision to flee when related to gender-based discrimination and violence that may, in some countries, lead to international protection, including refugee status.

About the author

Jaji, Rose

Anthropology

Jaji

Further experts

Christ, Simone

Social Anthropology 

Dippel, Beatrice

Comparatist 

Ekoh, Susan S.

Environmental Research 

Flaig, Merlin

Social Science 

Friesen, Ina

Political Science 

Kuhnt, Jana

Development Economist 

Martin-Shields, Charles

Political Science 

Roll, Michael

Sociology 

Sowa, Alina

Economics 

Zintl, Tina

Political Scientist