Trade elements in countries’ climate contributions under the Paris agreement

Brandi, Clara
External Publications (2017)

Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) (Issue Paper March 2017)


The Paris Climate Agreement, reached in December 2015, is designed to drive greater climate action, while allowing countries to choose their own targets and mitigation measures. This diversity and scale-up in ambition will increase interactions between climate measures and trade. This paper analyses countries’ nationally-determined climate contributions (NDCs) from a trade perspective. It assesses which countries address key trade elements, and explores options for trade frameworks to support climate efforts and ways to minimise potential conflicts between the trade and climate regimes. While trade-related elements feature prominently in countries’ climate contributions, there is tremendous untapped potential to use trade for driving climate action. The paper proposes ways for future NDCs to positively incorporate more trade elements and create a mutually reinforcing relationship between the climate and trade regimes.

About the author

Brandi, Clara

Economy and Political Science


Further experts

Aleksandrova, Mariya

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Bauer, Steffen

Political scientist 

Beck, Tanja

Political Science 

Berger, Axel

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Dippel, Beatrice


Ekoh, Susan S.

Environmental Research 

Gitt, Florian


Hägele, Ramona

Political Scientist 

Iacobuta, Gabriela

Climate and sustainable development policy 

Lehmann, Ina

Political Science 

Malerba, Daniele


Mathis, Okka Lou

Political Scientist 

Never, Babette

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Olekseyuk, Zoryana


Pegels, Anna


Srigiri, Srinivasa Reddy

Agricultural Economist 

Stender, Frederik


Vogel, Tim