Bonn: German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
Sustainable development requires that the climate system be stabilised between 1.5°C and 2°C of average global warming. This necessitates a drastic reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries and emerging economies are increasingly the focus here. These nations already account for two-thirds of global emissions. Failure to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement would ultimately undermine the achievement of just and sustainable global development that leaves no one behind. A development-oriented strategy that achieves the necessary reduction in emissions requires both climate change mitigation and development cooperation across policy fields. Tackling the now unavoidable impacts of climate change must also include matters related to land use, marine conservation and global trade. The Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provide the necessary objectives and normative foundation for political action. Consistently implementing the objectives of both agendas is the key challenge for international policymakers, global corporations and for communities. In this context, it is necessary to keep all countries and population groups in view, aligning with the requirement of leaving no one behind. In addition to overarching approaches, individual action areas at the interface between climate policy and sustainable development are highly relevant. The most notable of these action areas are global energy production, the political design of urbanisation, sustainable agriculture, forest and ecosystem conservation, and the management of global freshwater resources. There are already many vantage points for international climate cooperation with developing and emerging countries. Their central role in achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement can therefore be strengthened in a sustainable manner. Provided the political will is there on the part of the partner countries and the respective national frameworks are created, the above mentioned action areas offer numerous options for intervention. This could effectively leverage the potential and experience of agents of international cooperation. The recommendations of the authors serve as examples and are spelled out in detail in the presented study.