Bonn: German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS)
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and Asia are regions under rapid urbanisation processes, with urban areas with a great share of public transport use, although most of the transit fleet is of bad quality, polluting and without proper government regulation. This leads to an increasing number of middle-class citizens to see in cars and motorcycles as the only way to improve their travel conditions. Recognising the cost of urban air pollution and traffic congestion, some local governments are now shifting gears in favour of sustainable urban mobility. The introduction of sustainable public transport solutions however faces three main challenges: (1) the phasing-in of new systems within consolidated urban fabrics; (2) the promotion of affordable fares, accessibility and good connectivity; and (3) the generation of maximum co-benefits in terms of technological learning and development of competitive and sustainable new businesses and employment. This study presents these three challenges in relation to three public transport solutions: (1) the phasing-in of bus rapid transit (BRT) systems in Bogotá and Jakarta, (2) the indigenisation of metro as mass-rapid transit (MRT) in Mexico City and Delhi; and (3) the manufacturing of electric buses in São Paulo and Shenzhen. These solutions are introduced within the Big Push for Sustainability Framework and relevant concepts and theories in urban mobility.