The Middle East and North Africa

Hamas' brutal attack on Israel has brought the Middle East back into the consciousness of the global public. For decades, the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians has been one of the world's trouble spots, but recently it had taken a back seat to other conflicts in the region (protests in Iran, civil wars in Syria and Yemen) and outside (Russia's wars in Ukraine and between Armenia and Azerbaijan). The surprise attack from Gaza now shows that the conflict over Palestine remains active and dangerous.

The hopes of the West had rested on the cautious approach of Arab states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, Sudan, and most recently Saudi Arabia) with Israel. However, this approach was based on a power calculation by governments that ignores the simmering intra- and interstate conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East. In addition to the Palestinian conflict, the problems of the Kurds in Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran, the Arabs in Iran, the Shiites in the Gulf, the Amāziġ (formerly called 'Berbers') in the Maghreb states, the militias in Libya and the various confessional groups in Lebanon remain unresolved. This is also because no country in the region has developed democratic mechanisms of compromise.

In general, all the grievances that led to protests and even revolutions in Iran in 2010 and in the Arab states from 2011 onward continue to exist: This phenomenon, initially called the "Arab Spring," has brought neither better living conditions for the mass of the population, nor social justice, nor freedom and democracy. On the contrary, several Arab countries sank into civil wars, while in others authoritarian regimes consolidated their power or were replaced by new rulers.

In a research and advisory project funded by the BMZ, the German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS) is investigating what these changes mean for Germany's and Europe's cooperation with MENA countries.


Abedtalas, Musallam
Aboushady, Nora
El-Haddad, Amirah
Furness, Mark
Houdret, Annabelle
Loewe, Markus
Lorch, Jasmin
McCandless, Erin
Stöcker, Alexander
Sudermann, Yannick
Zintl, Tina


In defense of children’s right to development
Faus Onbargi, Alexia (2024)

The Current Column of 26 June 2024

German support for Israel’s government damages the rules-based order
Furness, Mark / Max-Otto Baumann (2024)

The Current Column of 2 May 2024

Resume support for the agency for Palestine refugees
Loewe, Markus (2024)
The Current Column of 23 April 2024

Water for peace? Peace for water in Gaza!
Houdret, Annabelle / Ines Dombrowsky (2024)

The Current Column of 20 March 2024

The global gateway in the Southern neighbourhood: the dilemma of investing in authoritarian MENA countries
Furness, Mark (2024)

in: EuroMeSCo Policy Brief 143, Barcelona: European Institute of the Mediterranean (IEMed)

Security policy is not development policy
Leininger, Julia / Anna-Katharina Hornidge (2024)

Bonn: German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS), The Current Column of 21 February 2024

Europe should prepare to support long-term Palestinian state-building
Furness, Mark (2023)
The Current Column of 20 December 2023

Are global value chains for sale? On business-state relations in the MENA region
Aboushady, Nora / Chahir Zaki (2023)

Discussion Paper 17/2023

Are cash-for-work programmes good for local economic growth? The case of donor-funded public works for refugees and nationals in Jordan
Loewe, Markus / Tina Zintl (2023)
in: Canadian Journal of Development Studies, first published 14.11.2023

Shrinking spaces in the Middle East and North Africa: Supporting civil society resilience
Saliba, Ilyas (2023)

IDOS Policy Brief 17/2023

Grey areas instead of polarisation on the Middle East war
Houdret, Annabelle (2023)

The Current Column of 8 November 2023

Triangular cooperation with the Arab region: policies, perspectives and practices of DAC members
Haug, Sebastian (2023)

in: United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation

Germany should host an international donor conference to plan for the aftermath
Furness, Mark / Tina Zintl (2023)
The Current Column of 26 October 2023

Should humanitarian aid for the Palestinians nonetheless be continued?
Loewe, Markus (2023)
The Current Column of 12 October 2023

Water crises – water opportunities promoting water cooperation in the Middle East
Houdret, Annabelle / Tobias von Lossow (2023)

Clingendael Report September 2023

Sustainable reconstruction needs civil society
Houdret, Annabelle (2023)

The Current Column of 22 September 2023

The oil of Northern and Eastern Syria after 2011: an institutional perspective
Musallam, Abedtalas / Ahmad Mohamad / Elika Khorshid / Hemo Giwan (2023)
in: International Journal of Kurdish Studies (1), 13-22

The political economy of real estate development in Alhaydaryah Neighbourhood - Aleppo
Musallam Abedtalas (2023)

in: Kalamoon (22), 215-228

Iraq’s quest for a social contract: an approach to promoting social cohesion and state resilience
Mühlberger, Wolfgang (2023)

Discussion Paper 1/2023

Storm survivors: evidence from firms in times of pandemic
El-Haddad, Amirah / Chahir Zaki (2023)

in: Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, first published 24.01.2023

Host community attitudes towards internally displaced persons: evidence from Al-Bab, Syria
Abedtalas, Musallam / Adnan Rashid Mamo (2022)

in: Journal of Social and Development Sciences 13 (4), 1-10

The Role of School in the Identification of Afghan Refugee Adolescents in Iran
Imani, Mohammed Javad / Hamed Nazari / Somayeh Mirashe (2022)

in: International Journal for Innovation Education and Research 10(9), Sept. 2022, pp. 32-45

Natural resource governance in light of the 2030 Agenda: the case of competition for groundwater in Azraq, Jordan
Dombrowsky, Ines / Ramona Hägele / Lukas Behrenbeck / Thomas Bollwein / Mirjana Köder / Daniel Oberhauser / Ronja Schamberger / Majd Al-Naber / Marwan Al-Raggad / Elias Salameh (2022)

Studies 106 (2022)

Climate change: threat or potential opportunity for social contracts in the MENA region?
Houdret, Annabelle / Markus Loewe (2022)

published on, 22.06.2022

The costs of making Egypt an intimate partner on security affairs
El-Haddad, Amirah / Jannis Grimm (2022)

The Current Column of 14 March 2022

Subsidy reform and the transformation of social contracts: the cases of Egypt, Iran and Morocco
Vidican Auktor, Georgeta / Markus Loewe (2022)

in: Social Sciences 11 (2), article 85, 1-22

State fragility, social contracts and the role of social protection: perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region
Loewe, Markus / Tina Zintl (2021)

in: Social Sciences 10 (12), 1-23

Why the next German government needs a long-term approach to Tunisia and Morocco
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret (2021)
The Current Column of 22 November 2021

Focussing European cooperation with the Middle East and North Africa on social contracts
Furness, Mark / Markus Loewe

Briefing Paper 18/2021

The Lived Social Contract in Schools: From protection to the production of hegemony
Sobhy, Hania (2021)
World Development 137

Subsidy reforms in the Middle East and North Africa: strategic options and their consequences for the social contract
Vidican Auktor, Georgeta / Markus Loewe (2021)

Discussion Paper 12/2021

How can water sector cooperation support democratic governance? Insights from Morocco
Houdret, Annabelle (2021)

in: Middle East Law and Governance 13, 72-97

Reconstruction in Assad’s Syria despite an exclusive social contract?
Zintl, Tina / Yannick Sudermann (2021)
The Current Column of 15 March 2021

Germany and Europe need to provide stronger support to COVID-19 recovery in the MENA region
Claes, Thomas / Mark Furness (2021)
The Current Column of 8 March 2021

Has the ‘Unsocial’ Social Contract perished in the Middle East?
El-Haddad, Amirah (2021)

The Current Column of 25 January 2021

Puzzles of political change in the Middle East: political liberalisation, authoritarian resilience and the question of systemic change
Schlumberger, Oliver (2021)
Discussion Paper 5/2021

Community Effects of Cash-for-Work Programmes in Jordan: Supporting Social Cohesion, More Equitable Gender Roles and Local Economic Development in Contexts of Flight and Migration
Loewe, Markus, Tina Zintl, Jörn Fritzenkötter, Verena Gantner, Regina Kaltenbach, Lena Pohl (2020)
Studies 102

The social contract for reconstruction in MENA
Trautner, Bernhard (2020)
Background paper for the World Bank report 'Building for peace in MENA - reconstruction for security, sustainable growth and equity' (i.E. 2019)

The rural social contract in Morocco and Algeria: reshaping through economic liberalisation and new rules and practices
Houdret, Annabelle / Hichem Amichi (2020)
in: The Journal of North African Studies (Online first)

International Cooperation with Fragile MENA Countries in the COVID-19 Context
McCandless, Erin / Bernhard Trautner (2020)
The Current Column of 24 August 2020

How the international community can support Lebanon’s reset
Trautner, Bernhard / Mark Furness(2020)
The Current Column of 17 August 2020

Entwicklungszusammenarbeit im Nahen Osten und in Nordafrika: auch in konfliktbetroffenen Ländern neue Gesellschaftsverträge unterstützen
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 7/2020

Reconstituting social contracts in conflict-affected MENA countries: Whither Iraq and Libya?
Furness, Mark / Bernhard Trautner (2020)
in: World Development 135, 1-12, article 105085

The Dynamics of the Egyptian Social Contract: How the Political Changes affected the Poor
Ibrahim, Solava (2020)

in: World Development 138

Rethinking social contracts in the MENA region: Economic governance, contingent citizenship, and state-society relations after the Arab uprisings
Heydemann, Steven (2020)
in: World Development 135

Perspectives on the Rebel Social Contract: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty in the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria
Revkin, Mara Redlich / Ariel Ahram (2020)
World Development 132

Never-ending reformism from above and dissatisfaction from below: the paradox of Moroccan post-Spring politics
Cavatorta, Francesco / Fabio Merone(2020)
Discussion Paper 16/2020

The political economy of automotive industry development policy in middle income countries: a comparative analysis of Egypt, India, South Africa and Turkey
Black, Anthony / Pallavi Roy / Amirah El-Haddad / Kamil Yilmaz(2020)
Manchester: Effective States and Inclusive Development (ESID) (Working Paper 143)

Redefining the social contract in the wake of the Arab Spring: the experiences of Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia
El-Haddad, Amirah(2020)
in: World Development 127 (March 2020)

Le contrat social: un outil d’analyse pour les pays de la région Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord (MENA), et au-delà
Loewe, Markus / Bernhard Trautner / Tina Zintl(2020)
Briefing Paper 5/2020

The social contract as a tool of analysis: introduction to the special issue on “Framing the evolution of new social contracts in Middle Eastern and North African countries”
Loewe, Markus / Tina Zintl / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
in: World Development, 4 May 2020 (online first)

Development cooperation with conflict-affected MENA countries: refocussing on the social contract
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
Briefing Paper 7/2020

Is the pandemic deepening the digital divide?
Zintl, Tina / Elvis Melia (2020)
The Current Colum of 22 April 2020

Quelles répartitions de la terre et de l’eau promouvoir pour l’agriculture irriguée de demain?
El Ouamaari, Samir / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
in: Samir Bouarfa / Francois Brelle / Catherine Coulon (Coord.), Quelles agricultures irriguées demain? Répondre aux enjeux de sécurité alimentaire et du développement durable, Versailles: Editions Quae, 59-75

Public-private partnerships in irrigation: how can smallholders benefit?
Houdret, Annabelle / Michael Brüntrup / Waltina Scheumann(2020)
in: Rural 21 54 (1) (Online)

Water plays a key role in the implementation of the Paris climate agreement
Scheumann, Waltina / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
The Current Column of 20 March 2020

Europe can and must prevent a humanitarian disaster!
Houdret, Annabelle / Mark Furness(2020)
The Current Column of 9 March 2020

Le contrat social: un nouveau concept pour la coopération avec les pays de la région MENA touchés par des conflits
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret(2020)
Briefing Paper 10/2020

Im Kampf gegen Antisemitismus hilft das nicht
Asseburg, Muriel / André Bank / Helga Baumgarten / Martin Beck / Thomas Demmelhuber / Ulrike Freitag / Steffen Hertog / Margret Johannsen / Annette Jünemann / Eberhard Kienle / Gudrun Krämer / Markus Loewe / Astrid Meier / Rachid Ouaissa / Achim Rohde / O(2019)
published in Zeit Online 4. Juni 2019

Der Gesellschaftsvertrag: ein Analyseinstrument nicht nur für Länder im Nahen Osten und in Nordafrika (MENA)
Loewe, Markus / Bernhard Trautner / Tina Zintl(2019)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 13/2019

Raising the minimum wage. رفع الحد الأدنى للأجر
El-Haddad, Amirah(2019)
published on The Forum - ERF Policy Portal - Economic Research Forum (ERF) April 30, 2019

Social protection schemes in the Middle East and North Africa: not fair, not efficient, not effective
Loewe, Markus(2019)
in: Rana Jawad / Nicola Jones / Mahmood Messkoub (eds.), Social policy in the Middle East and North Africa: the new social protection paradigm and universal coverage, Cheltenham: Elgar, 35-60

The rise and decline of the populist social contract in the Arab world
Hinnebusch, Raymond (2019)
World Development 129

The social contract: an analytical tool for countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and beyond
Loewe, Markus / Bernhard Trautner / Tina Zintl(2019)
Briefing Paper 17/2019

Beyond the river: elite perceptions and regional cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin
Tawfik, Rawia (2019)
in: Water Alternatives 12 (2), 655-675

التصدیر من أجل النمو: تحدید القطاعات الرائدة في مصر وتونس باستخدام منھجیة فضاء المنتجات (Arabic Version of: Exporting for growth: identifying leading sectors for Egypt and Tunisia using the Product Space Methodology)
El-Haddad, Amirah(2019)
Discussion Paper 5/2019

‘Donorship' and strategic policymaking: Germany's MENA aid programme since the Arab uprisings
Furness, Mark (2019)
in: Development Policy Review (Online)

Why El-Sissi’s decision to raise Egypt’s minimum wage is not such a good one!
El-Haddad, Amirah(2019)
The Current Column of 15 April 2019

European arms sales risk undermining development in North Africa
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret(2019)
The Current Column of 8 April 2019

Exporting for growth: identifying leading sectors for Egypt and Tunisia using the Product Space Methodology
El-Haddad, Amirah(2018)
Discussion Paper 25/2018

North Africa: can common security challenges promote regional integration?
Tawfik, Rawia (2018)
in: Adebusuyi Adeniran / Lanrre Ikuteyijo (eds.), Africa now! Emerging isues and alternative perspective, Berlin, London: Springer Nature on behalf of Palgrave Macmillan, 293-320

Renewable energy and economic growth in the MENA region: Empirical evidence and policy implications
Dees, Philipp / Vidican-Auktor, Georgeta (2018)
in: Middle East Development Journal 10 (2)

South Africa in North Africa: Egypt, Algeria, Libya and Tunisia
Tawfik, Rawia (2018)
in: Adekeye Adebajo / Kudrat Virk (eds.), Foreign policy in post-apartheid South Africa: security, diplomacy and trade, London: I.B. Tauris, 237-256

Eastern Nile cooperation at a crossroads: the costs of missing another opportunity
Rawia Tawfik (2018)
published on Kujenga Amani March 14, 2018

Should the European neighbourhood instrument be included in the proposed ‘single instrument’?
Furness, Mark / Niels Keijzer (2018), 14.06.2018

European neighbourhood policy decision-making at critical junctures: EU institutions, the member states and neighbourhood countries
Furness, Mark(2018)
in: Tobias Schumacher / Andreas Marchetti / Thomas Demmelhuber (eds.), The Routledge handbook on the European neighbourhood policy, London: Routledge, 200-210

Strategic policymaking and the German aid programme in the MENA region since the Arab uprisings
Furness, Mark(2018)
Discussion Paper 5/2018

المقاومة المدنية في الانتفاضة السورية من الاحتجاج السلمي إلى الحرب الاهلية الطائفية (Civil resistance in the Syrian uprising: From peaceful protest to sectarian civil war)
Hinnebusch, Raymond / Omar Imady / Tina Zintl(2017)
in: Roberts, Adam / Michael J. Willis / Rory McCarthy / Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), المقاومة المدنية في الربيع العربي. الانتصارات و الكوارث (Civil resistance in the Arab Spring: triumphs and disasters), Beirut: All Prints Distributors & Publishers s.a.i., 335-369

Decentralisation in Morocco: a solution to the "Arab Spring"?
Houdret, Annabelle / Astrid Harnisch(2018)
published on Journal of North African Studies 12 April 2018

Germany and Europe cannot give up on North Africa
Houdret, Annabelle / Mark Furness(2018)
The Current Column of 26 February 2018

Social insurance reforms in Egypt: needed, belated, flopped
Loewe, Markus / Lars Westemeier(2018)
in: Social Policy in the Middle East and North Africa (POMEPS Studies 31), 63-69

L’accès à l’information environnementale: vecteur d’une gouvernance responsable au Maroc et en Tunisie?
Houdret, Annabelle / Irene Pasqua / Saâd Filali Meknassi(2018)
Briefing Paper 11/2018

Access to environmental information: a driver of accountable governance in Morocco and Tunisia?
Houdret, Annabelle / Irene Pasqua / Saâd Filali Meknassi(2018)
Briefing Paper 10/2018

What is the renewed military offensive achieving?
Trautner, Bernhard / Tina Zintl(2018)
The Current Column of 31 January 2018

Reform programme: Is Egypt’s economy stabilising the country?
El-Haddad, Amirah / Omar El Shenety / Ahmed Abd Rabou(2018)
The Current Column of 29 January 2018

Umweltverschmutzung und soziale Proteste: verantwortungsvolle Governance in Marokko und Tunesien stärken!
Houdret, Annabelle / Irene Pasqua / Saâd Filali Meknassi(2018)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 8/2018

The Informalization of the Egyptian economy (1998-2012): a factor in growing wage inequality?
El-Haddad, Amirah / May Gadallah(2018)
Kairo: Economic Research Forum (Working Paper Series 1210)

Breaking Egypt's unsocial contract
El-Haddad, Amirah(2018)
published on Economic Research Forum (ERF) January 30, 2018

Eine Europäische Friedensfazilität könnte einen pragmatischen Beitrag zur Friedensförderung weltweit leisten
Bergmann, Julian / Mark Furness(2018)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 7/2018

Social protection in the MENA countries: prospects for a new social contract?
Jawad, Rana / Markus Loewe (eds.)(2018)
International Social Security Review 71 (2), Special Issue

Introducing social protection in the Middle East and North Africa: prospects for a new social contract?
Markus Loewe, Rana Jawad(2018)
in: International Social Security Review 71 (2), 3-18, (Special Issue)

Egypt unable to find agreement in Renaissance Dam talks
Tawfik, Rawia (2017)

Al-Monitor 22.11.2017

Pension schemes in MENA: generous—but not to the poor!
Loewe, Markus(2017)
in: Policy in Focus 14 (3), 11-14

The effectiveness of Morocco’s industrial policy in promoting a national automotive industry
Hahn, Tina / Georgeta Vidican-Auktor(2017)
Discussion Paper 27/2017

Decentralisation in Morocco: the current reform and its possible contribution to political liberalisation
Houdret, Annabelle / Astrid Harnisch(2017)
Discussion Paper 11/2017

Trump, the Middle East and Germany
Trautner, Bernhard / Mark Furness(2017)
The Current Column of 19 January 2017

Wasser marsch!
Houdret, Annabelle / Hannah Janetschek / Ines Dombrowsky(2017)
Published on: International Development Blog, 24.08.2017

Welfare gains from utility reforms in Egyptian telecommunications
El-Haddad, Amirah(2017)
published on Utilities Policy 17 February 2017

A new rural social contract for the Maghreb? The political economy of access to water, land and rural development
Houdret, Annabelle / Zakaria Kadiri / Lisa Bossenbroek(2017)
in: Middle East Law and Governance 9 (1), 20-42

Priorities for international cooperation with Libya: a development perspective
Furness, Mark(2017)
in: Mediterranean Politics 22 (4), 545-552

Ein neuer Gesellschaftsvertrag für die arabische Welt
Loewe, Markus / Annabelle Houdret(2017)
in: Diplomatisches Magazin 2/2017, 42-45

A decade on: how relevant is the regulatory environment for micro and small enterprise upgrading after all?
Altenburg, Tilman / Aimée Hampel-Milagrosa / Markus Loewe(2016)
in: The European Journal of Development Research 29 (2), 457-475

Umweltkonflikte: die Bedrohung der Zukunft?
Houdret, Annabelle(2016)
in: Karin Herzig (Hrsg.), Politik im Fokus: Arbeitsbücher für Gemeinschaftskunde in der Kursstufe des Gymnasiums in Baden-Württemberg, Paderborn: Schöningh, 62-63

Female wages in the Egyptian textiles and clothing industry: low pay and discrimination
El-Haddad, Amirah(2016)
in: Review of Economics and Political Science 1 (1), 1-35

رؤية لاتجاهات السياسة الصناعية المصرية فى ضوء بعض الدراسات المقارنة (Government intervention with no structural transformation: the challenges of Egyptian industrial policy in comparative perspective)
El-Haddad, Amirah(2016)
Economic Research Forum (ERF Working Paper Series 1038)

Social protection: a key instrument for social, economic and political development
Loewe, Markus(2016)
Kiel: Poverty Reduction, Equity and Growth Network (PEGNet), (Pegnet Policy Brief 7)

Ein neuer Gesellschaftsvertrag für die Länder des Nahen Ostens und Nordafrikas (MENA)
Loewe, Markus / Amirah El-Haddad / Mark Furness / Annabelle Houdret / Bernhard Trautner / Tina Zintl(2016)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 05.12.2016

Civil resistance in the Syrian uprising: from peaceful Protest to sectarian civil war
Hinnebusch, Raymond / Omar Imady / Tina Zintl(2016)
in: Adam Roberts / Michael Willis / Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil resistance in the Arab Spring: triumphs and disasters, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr., 223-247

How can development policy help to tackle the causes of flight?
Schraven, Benjamin / Bernhard Trautner / Julia Leininger / Markus Loewe / Jörn Grävingholt(2016)
Briefing Paper 2/2016

Ein Marshallplan für Syrien
Trautner, Bernhard(2016)
published on Zeit Online 3. Februar 2016

Bürgerkriegsausgang und dauerhafter Frieden: warum der Vorteil militärischer Siege überschätzt wird
Kreutz, Joakim(2016)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 1/2016

The Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on the Orontes River: benefits for all?
Scheumann, Waltina / Omar Shmaly(2016)
in: Aysegül Kibaroglu / Ronald Jaubert (eds.), Water resources management in the Asi-Orontes River Basin: issues and opportunities, Geneva:Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and MEF University, 125-137

Ein italienischer Wissenschaftler wird in Kairo zu Tode gefoltert – trauriger Anlass, die Zusammenarbeit mit Ägypten zu überdenken
Loewe, Markus / Tilman Altenburg / Bernhard Trautner / Georgeta Vidican(2016)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 17.03.2016

Krisenregion Naher Osten: Fluchtursachen und die Rolle der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
Trautner, Bernhard(2016)
in: Resultate 2/2016, 1,3-4

Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous?
Houdret, Annabelle / Simon Bonnet(2016)
published on Cahiers Agricultures 25 (2)

The European Union’s development policy: a balancing act between ‘A more comprehensive approach’ and creeping securitization
Furness, Mark / Stefan Gänzle(2016)
in: Stephen Brown / Jörn Grävingholt (eds.), The securitization of foreign aid, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 138-162

Policy coherence for development and the security-development nexus in EU external relations
Furness, Mark(2016)
in: European Parliament Directorate-General for External Policies (ed.), EU policy coherence for development: the challenge of sustainability (Workshop), 22-35

Zur Bekämpfung der tatsächlichen Fluchtursachen in Syrien
Trautner, Bernhard(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 08.10.2015

The global partnership for effective development cooperation: origins, actions and future prospects
Abdel-Malek, Talaat(2015)
Studies 88

Megaprojekte helfen Ägypten nur wenig
Loewe, Markus(2015)
published on Zeit online 25. August 2015

Regional energy trading: a new avenue for resolving a regional water dispute?
Scheumann, Waltina / Sahnaz Tigrek(2015)
published on International Journal of Water Governance, special Issue, DOI: 10.7564/14-IJWG46

Was kann Entwicklungspolitik zur Bekämpfung von Fluchtursachen beitragen?
Schraven, Benjamin / Bernhard Trautner / Julia Leininger / Markus Loewe / Jörn Grävingholt(2015)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 14/2015

Europeanisation and the EU's comprehensive approach to crisis management in Africa
Furness, Mark / Gorm Rye Olsen(2015)
published on European Politics and Society DOI:10.1080/23745118.2015.1075779

Transforming Egypt: innovation and diversification as drivers of growth
Loewe, Markus(2015)
published on The Economic Research Forum (ERF Policy Brief 1/2015)

Europe, a continent of immigration
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
in: Culture Report (EUNIC Yearbook 2014/2015), 153-159

Fragmentation and increasing heterogeneity: conference review
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
published on Turkish Review 01 January 2015

The emergence of a solar energy innovation system in Morocco: a governance perspective
Vidican, Georgeta(2015)
published on Innovation and Development 30 June 2015

The Tunisian transition: torn between democratic consolidation and neo-conservatism in an insecure regional context
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
Barcelona: European Institute of the Mediterranean (EuroMeSCo Paper Series/Papers IEMed 25)

Migration nach Europa – Nordafrika als Grenzwächter Europas?
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 08.06.2015

Der Nukleardeal mit Iran: Brandbeschleuniger oder Friedenskatalysator im Nahen Osten?
Trautner, Bernhard(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 29.06.2015

The causal chain of market based reform in Egyptian voice Telecommunication
El-Haddad, Amirah(2015)
in: Journal of Development Effectiveness 7 (4), 499-518

Scaling-up renewable energy deployment in North Africa
Vidican, Georgeta(2015)
in: Alessandro Rubino, Regulation and investments in energy markets: solutions for the Mediterranean, Amsterdam: Academic Pr., 73-87

Was Europa nach den Anschlägen vom 13.11. tun kann – und was es nicht tun sollte
Henökl, Thomas(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 18.11.2015

Revisiting hydro-hegemony from a benefitsharing perspective: the case of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
Tawfik, Rawia(2015)
Discussion Paper 5/2015

Youth, revolt, recognition: the young generation during and after the “Arab Spring”
Schäfer, Isabel (ed.)(2015)
Berlin: Mediterranean Institute Berlin (MIB) / Humboldt University (Online Publikation)

Acteurs économiques tuniso-allemands, identités transméditerranéennes et transition
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
in: Sylvie Daviet (eds.), L’entrepreneuriat transméditerranéen: les nouvelles stratégies d’internationalisation, Tunis: Editions IRMC-Karthala, 319-332

Paradigmenwechsel in der Syrien- und Nahostpolitik?
Trautner, Bernhard(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 31.03.2015

Ägypten: Die Herausforderungen des Wandels bewältigen
Vidican, Georgeta / Yasser Sherif(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 30.03.2015

Was zur Entschärfung der syrischen Flüchtlingskrise getan werden sollte – und was nicht
Furness, Mark / Annabelle Houdret(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 08.09.2015

The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India, and the Philippines.
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée, Loewe, Markus & Caroline Reeg(2015)
World Development 66(2), 118-130.

Die Morde in Paris: Schuld ist nicht der Islam…
Loewe, Markus / Annabelle Houdret / Mark Furness(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 21.01.2015

Ein Friedensnobelpreis für die Zivilgesellschaft Tunesiens
Schäfer, Isabel(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 14.10.2015

Ausbau des Suezkanals: Was hat Ägypten davon?
Loewe, Markus(2015)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 24.08.2015

ما هي العوامل التي تحدد الرتقاء بالمشاريع الصغيرة والمتوسطة في مصر؟ (Which factors constrain the upgrading of small and medium-size enterprises in Egypt?)
Loewe, Markus et al.(2015)
in: SME Advisor Arabia 2/2015, 48-54

Innerstaatliche Konflikte um Wasser: Ursachen und Präventionsmöglichkeiten
Houdret, Annabelle(2014)
in: Jahresheft Geopolitik 2014,14-19

The end of the Baʿthist social contract in Bashar al-Asad’s Syria: reading sociopolitical transformations through charities and broader benevolent activism
Ruiz de Elvira, Laura / Tina Zintl(2014)
in: International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES) 46 (2), 329-349

Wasser und Strom – Waffen im Syrien-Konflikt
Scheumann, Waltina(2014)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 30.06.2014

Soziale Unruhen in Nordafrika: die Rolle von Wasser- und Landpolitik
Houdret, Annabelle(2014)
in: Ulrich Schneckener / Arnulf von Scheliha / Andreas Lienkamp / Britta Klagge (Hrsg.), Wettstreit um Ressourcen: Konflikte um Klima, Wasser und Boden, München: Oekom Verl., 209-222

Promoting democracy: what role for the democratic emerging powers?
Schönwälder, Gerd(2014)
Discussion Paper 2/2014

Microinsurance in Western Asia
Loewe, Markus / Coralie Zaccar(2014)
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) / International Labour Organization (ILO)

Evolution of dam policies: evidence from the big hydropower states
Scheumann, Waltina / Oliver Hensengerth (eds.)(2014)
Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer

Energie und Wasser für die MENA-Region: Chancen in der Krise
Vidican, Georgeta / Annabelle Houdret(2014)
Die aktuelle Kolumne, 05.05.2014

Konkurrenz um’s „blaue Gold“ : nur durch nachhaltiges Management kann Marokko der Wasserkrise begegnen
Houdret, Annabelle(2014)
in: Bilatéral: das bilaterale Kammer- und Wirtschaftsmagazin der AHK Marokko 54/2014, 28-34

Pension schemes and pension reforms in the Middle East and North Africa
Loewe, Markus(2014)
in: Katja Hujo (ed.), Reforming pensions in developing and transition countries, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 69-101

Social media and protest mobilization: evidence from the Tunisian revolution
Breuer, Anita / Todd Landman / Dorothea Farquhar(2014)
published on Democratization

Entscheidende Faktoren für das Wachstum von Klein- und Kleinstunternehmen
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée / Markus Loewe / Caroline Reeg(2014)
KFW (Entwicklungspolitik kompakt 5/2014)

Media experiences and communication strategies of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood from 1928 to 2011: a brief historical overview
Breuer, Anita(2014)
Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen – Plus Suppl. zu 1/2014

Islamic political communication online: an analysis of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s official English websites
Breuer, Anita / Karim Khashaba(2014)
Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen – Plus Suppl. zu 1/2014

Governing the energy transition: the reform of fossil-fuel subsidy regimes in developing countries
Vidican, Georgeta(2014)
Conference proceedings: „The dynamics of transformational environmental policies“

The emergence of an innovation system for the solar energy sector in Morocco
Vidican, Georgeta(2014)
in: Innovation and Development (forthcoming)

Reforming fossil-fuel subsidy regimes in the Middle East and North African countries
Vidican, Georgeta(2014)
in: Anna Pegels, Green industrial policy in emerging countries, London: Routledge, 148-178

Letzte Chance: der arabische Frühling scheint beendet – aber in Tunesien kann sich die Demokratie noch durchsetzen
Loewe, Markus(2014)
in: Rundschau: Zeitschrift der deutsch-tunesischen Gesellschaft 1/2014, 13

Modernization theory II: western-educated Syrians and the authoritarian upgrading of civil society
Zintl, Tina(2013)
in: Laura Ruiz de Elvira / Tina Zintl (eds), Civil society and the state in Syria: the outsourcing of social responsibility (St Andrews Papers on Contemporary Syria), Boulder: Rienner Publ., 31-63

Authoritarian resilience and international linkages in Iran and Syria
Ehteshami, Anoush / Raymond Hinnebusch / Heidi Huuhtanen / Paola Raunio / Maaike Warnaar / Tina Zintl(2013)
in: Steven Heydemann / Reinoud Leenders (eds.), Middle East authoritarianisms: governance and regime resilience in Syria and Iran, Stanford: Stanford Univ. Pr., 222-242

Syria’s reforms under Bashar al-Asad: an opportunity for foreign-educated entrepreneurs to move into decision-making?
Zintl, Tina(2013)
in: Steffen Hertog / Giacomo Luciani / Marc Valerie (eds.), Business politics in the Middle East, London: Hurst, 159-182

Euro-Mediterranean players par excellence? Foreign-educated Syrians transnational logics of action
Zintl, Tina(2013)
in: Jakob Horst / Annette Jünemann / Delf Rothe (eds.), Euro-Mediterranean relations after the Arab Spring: persistence in times of change, Farnham: Ashgate, 205-223

Zwei Jahre nach Beginn des „arabischen Frühlings“: Die entscheidenden Fragen der Zusammenarbeit bleiben bislang unbeantwortet
Houdret, Annabelle / Markus Loewe(2013)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 10.06.2013

Arabischer Frühling, aber schlechte Ernten: Warum das ländliche Tunesien für den Erfolg der Revolution wichtig ist
Houdret, Annabelle / Mohamed Elloumi(2013)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 22.07.2013

Which factors determine the upgrading of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises? Evidence from Egypt, India and the Philippines
Hampel-Milagrosa, Aimée / Markus Loewe / Caroline Reeg(2013)
Discussion Paper 21/2013

Industrial policy in Egypt 2004–2011
Loewe, Markus(2013)
Discussion Paper 13/2013

Which factors determine the upgrading of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? The case of Egypt
Loewe, Markus / Iman Al-Ayouty / Annegret Altpeter / Lisa Borbein / Marc Chantelauze / Maximilian Kern / Elisabeth Niendorf / Malak Reda(2013)
Studies 76

Letzte Chance: der arabische Frühling scheint beendet, aber in Tunesien kann sich die Demokratie noch durchsetzen
Loewe, Markus(2013)
in: E+Z 54 (12), 483

Last hope: the Arab spring seems to have failed but democracy could yet prevail in Tunesia
Loewe, Markus(2013)
in: D+C 41 (12), 483

Caring for the urban middle class: the political economy of social protection in Arab countries
Loewe, Markus(2013)
in: Katja Bender / Markus Kaltenborn / Christian Pfleiderer (eds.), Social protection in developing countries: reforming systems, London: Routledge, 196-204

Social health protection in the Arab world (e-book)
Loewe, Markus(2013)
in: Jenny Schreiber / Thomas Eich / Morgan Clarke (eds.), Conference proceedings of the international conference: health related issues and Islamic normativity, Halle: MENALib, 151-167

Erst Jasmin, dann Fukushima: wie geht es weiter mit „Strom aus der Wüste“?
Ruchser, Matthias(2013)
in: Sabine Ruß-Sattar / Peter Bender / Georg Walter (Hrsg.), Europa und der Arabische Frühling: Deutschland, Frankreich und die Umbrüche der EU-Mittelmeerpolitik, Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verl.-Ges., 143-154

Strom aus der Wüste: wo stehen Desertec und Co.?
Ruchser, Matthias(2013)
in: Diplomatisches Magazin 4/2013, 38-41

Online media and offline empowerment in post-rebellion Tunisia: an analysis of internet use during democratic transition
Breuer, Anita / Jacob Groshek(2013)
in: Journal of Information Technology and Politics 11 (1), 25-44

The role of social media in mobilizing political protest: evidence from the Tunisian revolution
Breuer, Anita(2012)
Discussion Paper 10/2012

Syria from reform to revolt
Hinnebusch, Raymond / Tina Zintl (eds.)(2015)
(Volume 1: Political economy and international relations), Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Pr.

Pension schemes and pension reforms in the Middle East and North Africa
Loewe, Markus(2009)
Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, mimeo

Public pensions in MENA: a dangerous situation
Loewe, Markus(2012)
in: Middle East Insurance Review 12/2012, 34-35

Ägypten: Großes Potenzial, schlechte Umsetzung; wie das Land die Produktivität seiner Ökonomie verbessern kann
Loewe, Markus(2012)
in: Internationale Politik 2/2012, Sonderheft: Länderporträt Ägypten, 4-11

The water connection: irrigation, water grabbing and politics in southern Morocco
Houdret, Annabelle(2012)
published on Water Alternatives 5 (2), 284-303

Strom aus der Wüste: Realität oder Fata Morgana?
Ruchser, Matthias(2012)
in: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 62 (12), 92-94

Carbon capture, utilization and storage scenarios for the Gulf cooperation council region: a dephi-based foresight study
Al-Saleh,Yasser et al.(2012)
in: Futures 44 (1), 105-115

Expanding women’s involvement in science, technology, and engineering career pathways: a case study for the UAE
Samulewicz, Diana / Georgeta Vidican / Noor Ghazal Aswad(2012)
in: Gender, Technology and Development 16 (2), 125-15

An empirical examination of the development of a solar innovation system in the United Arab Emirates
Vidican, Georgeta / Diana Samulewicz / Lisa McElvaney / Yasser Al-Saleh(2012)
in: Journal of Energy and Sustainable Development 16 (2), 178-188

Building domestic capabilities in renewable energy: a case study of Egypt
Vidican, Georgeta(2012)
Studies 66

Energiewende diesseits und jenseits des Mittelmeers: ein mehrdimensionales Vorhaben
Vidican, Georgeta(2012)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 30.04.2012

Der Europäische Demokratiefonds zwischen Wunsch und Wirklichkeit: flexibel und unbürokratisch?
Leininger, Julia / Solveig Richter(2012)
Analysen und Stellungnahmen 9/2012

The European endowment for democracy between wishful thinking and reality: flexible and unbureaucratic?
Leininger, Julia / Solveig Richter(2012)
Briefing Paper 11/2012

Innovation dynamics within emerging solar industries in oil-rich countries: a omparative case study between KSA and UAE
Vidican, Georgeta / Yasser Al-Saleh(2012)
in: Journal of Energy and Sustainable Development, 7 (2), 144-171

The innovation and learning dynamics of the carbon capture, utilization and storage sector in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Varkey, Vijo / Georgeta Vidican / Yasser Al-Saleh(2012)
in: International Journal of Innovation and Learning (in press)

El agua: una cuestión de poder y conflicto en Marruecos
Houdret, Annabelle(2011)
in: Habib Ayeb, El agua en el mundo árabe: percepciones globales y realidades locales, Madrid: Casa Árabe, 87-106

Creating a knowledge-based economy in the United Arab Emirates: realizing the unfulfilled potential of women in the science, technology and engineering fields
Aswad, Noor Ghazal / Georgeta Vidican / Diana Samulewicz(2011)
in: European Journal of Engineering Education 8 (6), 559-570

Begrenzter Schaden: die Auswirkungen der globalen Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise auf den Nahen Osten und Nordafrika
Brach, Juliane / Markus Loewe(2011)
in: Günter Meyer / Andreas Thimm (Hrsg.), Wirtschaftliche und soziale Folgen der Finanzkrise für die Entwicklungsländer, Mainz: Universität (Veröffentlichungen des Interdisziplinären Arbeitskreises Dritte Welt 21)

Marokko und die Europäische Union
Houdret, Annabelle(2011)
in: Studienkreis für Tourismus und Entwicklung (Hrsg.), Marokko verstehen, Sympathiemagazin des Studienkreis für Tourismus und Entwicklung e.V., 38-39

In Nachbars Garten….Marokko im regionalen Kontext
Houdret, Annabelle(2011)
in: Studienkreis für Tourismus und Entwicklung (Hrsg.), Marokko verstehen, Sympathiemagazin des Studienkreis für Tourismus und Entwicklung e.V., 36-37

Syria’s industrial policy
Chahoud, Tatjana(2011)

The European neighbourhood policy: everything but incentives
Furness, Mark(2011)
in: Thomas Fues / LIU Youfa (eds.), Global governance and building a harmonious world: a comparison of European and Chinese concepts for international affairs (, Studies 62),117-134

Umweltpolitikberatung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit: Erfahrungen, Herausforderungen und Perspektiven im Maghreb
Houdret, Annabelle / Axel Olearius / Ellen Gunsilius(2011)
in: Günter Altner u.a., Grüner Umbau: neue Allianzen für die Umwelt ; Jahrbuch Ökologie 2012, Stuttgart: Hirzel, 252-231

Turkey’s water policy: national frameworks and international cooperation
Kibaroglu, Ayşegül / Waltina Scheumann / Annika Kramer (eds.)(2011)
Heidelberg: Springer

Suche nach einer neuen Rolle: fehlender Strukturwandel als Gefahr für Syrien und Jordanien
Loewe, Markus(2011)
in: Neue Zürcher Zeutung, internationale Ausgabe 2.3.2011, 11

Wasta: how the use of “connections” impacts on private sector development in Arab countries and why
Loewe, Markus(2011)
in: United Nations Global Compact (ed.), Global Compact International Yearbook 2011, New York, 64-65

Keine, eine, viele Demokratien in der arabischen Welt?
Loewe, Markus(2011)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 07.02.2011

Die entwicklungspolitischen Konsultationen der Europäischen Union: auf Worte müssen Taten folgen!
Koch, Svea / Davina Makhan / Mark Furness(2011)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 14.02.2011

Kooperation wofür? Europas Hilfe für Nordafrika nutzte bisher vor allem den autoritären Herrschern dort
Loewe, Markus / Mark Furness(2011)
in: Die Zeit 24.02.2011, 33

Die Unabhängigkeit des Südsudan: der Beginn eines langen, harten Weges zum Frieden
Furness, Mark(2011)
Die aktuelle Kolumne vom 17.01.2011

Environmental impact assessment in Turkish dam planning
Scheumann, Waltina et al.(2011)
in: Ayşegül Kibaroglu / Waltina Scheumann / Annika Kramer (eds.), Turkey’s water policy: national frameworks and international cooperation,139-159

How widely applicable is river basin management? An analysis of wastewater management in an arid transboundary case
Dombrowsky, Ines et al.(2010)
in: Environmental Management 45 (5), 1112-1126

Les conflits autour de l’eau au Maroc: causes, impacts et perspectives
Houdret, Annabelle(2010)
Editions Universitaires Européennes

Wasserkonflikte sind Machtkonflikte: Ursachen und Lösungsansätze in Marokko
Houdret, Annabelle(2010)
Wiesbaden: VS-Verl.

Defining the role of the European Union in managing illegal migration in the Mediterranean Basin: policy, operations and oversight
Khasabova, Alina / Mark Furness(2010)
in: Ivan Ureta / Derek Lutterbeck (eds.), Migration, development and diplomacy: perspectives from the Southern Mediterranean, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Pr.,191-217

Soziale Sicherung in den arabischen Ländern: Determinanten, Defizite und Strategien für den informellen Sektor
Loewe, Markus(2010)
Baden-Baden: Nomos Verl.-Ges. (Entwicklungstheorie und Entwicklungspolitik 7)

The global financial crisis and the Arab world: impact, reactions and consequences
Loewe, Markus / Juliane Brach(2010)
in: Mediterranean Politics 15 (1), 45-71

Die Diskrepanz zwischen wirtschaftlicher und menschlicher Entwicklung in der arabischen Welt
Loewe, Markus(2010)
In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 24/2010, 10-16

The DESERTEC initiative: powering the development perspectives of Southern Mediterranean countries?
Erdle, Steffen(2010)
Discussion Paper 12/2010


The concept of the "social contract"

Stability and Development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

Feminist employment policy: women, structural change and labour markets in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) regions

Former Projects

Implementing the 2030 Agenda using the example of the water-energy-food nexus in Jordan

Effects of Cash-for-Work-Programs for Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Democracy Promotion in the Age of Social Digital Media: Challenges and Opportunities

Micro and Small Enterprise Upgrading in Egypt, India and the Philippines

Social protection for the informal sector: The potential of social and micro-insurance in low- and middle-income countries

Building domestic capabilities in renewable energy: A case study of Morocco

EU Development Policy to 2020: Meeting Internal and External Challenges


Hybrid public lecture event
How to map and measure quality of employment?

Bonn and Online, 6 March 2024

Public roundtable debate
German Cooperation with the MENA Region in the “Zeitenwende” Era: An Opportunity for Socially Just Transition?
Berlin, 24 January 2023

La participation citoyenne au Maroc: Entre expériences passées et régionalisation avancée
Rabat, 27 October 2022

Social Contracts in the MENA – Drivers of Change
Bonn, 24-26 August 2022

Online Debate Series
Until debt tear us apart? International cooperation and socio-economic justice in a post-Covid19 MENA region

Online, 22 September - 13 October 2020

Pension Reform in the Middle East and North Africa

Bonn, 27 August 2020

The Future of Euro-Mediterranean Trade Cooperation: Deep and Comprehensive or Hub and Spokes?
Berlin, 03 July 2018

Round Table
Perspectives for a renewed partnership between Europe and the MENA
Berlin, 10 October 2017

Panel discussion
Under Threat: International Academia and Press Freedom. In memoriam Giulio Regeni
Bonn, 25 January 2017

International Conference
A new social contract for MENA

Bonn, 5 to 6 December 2016

Unser Nachbar Algerien
Bonn, 28 June 2016

Public Debate
Morocco: from ‚Arab Spring‘ to democratic governance?
Bonn, 23 June 2016

Expert Conference
Deutsch-französische Außen- und Entwicklungspolitik in Nordafrika
Schloss Genshagen, 23 to 24 June 2016

Deutsch-französische Außen- und Entwicklungspolitik in Nordafrika

Schloss Genshagen bei Berlin, 23 to 24 June 2016

Stabilization and development for Libya: Challenges and Opportunities

Berlin, 16 March 2016

Bonn Water Lecture
Wasser als Waffe des IS

Bonn, 02 March 2016

Panel Discussion
Wie lässt sich der „Arabische Frühling“ retten?

Berlin, 11 December 2015

Public Discussion
Kann Entwicklungspolitik zur Bewältigung von Flüchtlingskrisen beitragen?

Bonn, 03 December 2015

Advancing an international Energiewende: lessons from North Africa
Potsdam, 29.06.2015

Bonn Water Lecture
Changing water politics in the Nile basin
Bonn, 17 June 2015

Public Discussion
Ägypten nach dem Arabischen Frühling – Zurück in die Vergangenheit?

Bonn, 18 June 2014

Public Discussion
The “Arab Spring” at the crossroads: where is Morocco heading to?
Bonn, 09 July 2013

Öffentliche Podiumsdiskussion
Tunesien zwei Jahre nach der Revolution

Bonn, 20 March 2013

Regional Coordinator

Markus Loewe
Phone +49 (0)228 94927-154

Mena Team Flyer



German support for Israel’s government damages the rules-based order
Furness, Mark / Max-Otto Baumann (2024)

The Current Column of 2 May 2024


The global gateway in the Southern neighbourhood: the dilemma of investing in authoritarian MENA countries
Furness, Mark (2024)

in: EuroMeSCo Policy Brief 143, Barcelona: European Institute of the Mediterranean (IEMed)

Network FEMISE

The German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS) is member of the Forum Euro-Méditerranée des Instituts de Sciences Economiques.